This was originally published on Sightline Institute’s website, http://daily.sightline.org/2012/12/20/tiny-homes/.
Written by Alyse Nelson, a Sightline Writing Fellow.
My husband and I think we’ve found a way to pay off our mortgage early, without taking on an extra job or working nights. We’ve decided to construct a rental unit—a “mother-in-law suite”—within our home. If it pans out as we hope, the rental income will let us pay off our loan 10 years early. And who knows: it could give us a chance to live closer to family as we, or they, get on in years.
Jason and I are not alone; lots of folks across Cascadia and beyond are experimenting with adding a second (or third) dwelling to an existing single-family home. And in perhaps the most interesting development, more and more people are choosing to buck the “bigger is better” trend in North American housing. They’re taking small spaces—back yards, side lots, or freestanding garages—and using them to build tiny houses.
Ranging from 800 square feet to less than 100 square feet—a far cry from the 1000 square feet per person that has become the North American norm—these “doll houses” take many shapes and sizes. And the people who live in them are as diverse as the homes themselves. Some hope to save money on housing; others hope to “live green” by choosing a smaller space; some are trading living space for a neighborhood they love; and others want to live closer to family or friends.
Here are some of their stories.
Jay Shafer, a founding father of the tiny home movement and a co-owner of the Tumbleweed Tiny House Company, told the BBC: “People are thinking more about what really is a luxury now. Is it a 30-year mortgage, or is it just living simply and having the time to do more of what you want? And I think a lot of people are starting to really change their idea of the American Dream.”
Dee Williams decided to rethink her American Dream after building a school in Guatemala, and having a close friend get cancer made her reevaluate her priorities. “He was getting sicker and sicker, and I didn’t have the time or the money to really throw myself into helping him. I was spending a lot of time and money on my house. So the house was the easiest thing to try to get rid of,” Williams told Yes! Magazine. So she sold her 1,500 square foot Portland home and built an 84-square foot tiny home for $10,000. Now she lives without a mortgage, giving her the time and money to invest in her friends and community.
Akua Schatz and Brendon Purdy’s dream was to live near relatives, but they couldn’t afford a home in Vancouver, BC’s Dunbar neighborhood. Instead of moving to the suburbs, they decided to build a 500-square-foot laneway home in Brendon’s parents’ backyard. In a city where the average home price is $725,086, Schatz and Purdy spent $280,000 to build their home.
There’s another plus to their backyard home: Schatz and Purdy have babysitters just feet away from their front door. “It’s really a North American concept to have success tied to moving away or distancing yourself, so maybe we’re reinventing what it means to be successful, and that means keeping family close,” Schatz suggests in this video from CTV news.
But unlike Schatz and Purdy, who plan to eventually switch places with Purdy’s parents and live in the larger home as their family grows, Jon and Ryah Dietzen moved from their 1,500 square foot home to a 400 square foot cottage with two toddlers. They made the move for its financial freedom, but the benefits didn’t stop there. “We realized after a few months how much time, freedom, and peace we were gaining by not collecting and spending our time taking care of more ‘stuff’,” Jon Dietzen told me. By choosing a smaller house, they found a better balance between work and home life.
The Dietzens prove that tiny homes can work even for a family of four, and that they’re not just for couples, seniors, or singles.
Small homes combat neighborhood decline brought on by shrinking household sizes. Adding people can revitalize a neighborhood, allowing schools to stay open, giving neighborhood businesses more customers, making transit service cost-effective, and saving on infrastructure costs. Infilling neighborhoods with backyard cottages helps add more people to a neighborhood, without altering its character.
Cities and towns across Cascadia are beginning to permit backyard cottages. Seattle andVancouver both adopted rules for backyard cottages in 2009. Portland has allowed accessory dwellings since 1998; but when the city relaxed size restrictions and waived development charges in 2010, it unleashed a renaissance in small home building. Today, thousands of properties qualify for accessory units in Portland, Seattle, and Vancouver—leading to hundreds of tiny houses, typically built on a small scale by individual homeowners.
As homeowners build small dwellings, they provide lower-cost housing within the existing fabric of their neighborhood, with no government support necessary. Vancouver’s planning director, Brent Toderian, sees this as the essential value of the trend towards small homes: “[It’s] about ordinary people. Thousands of individual homeowners can do it, one by one by one. It’s publicly propelled, not corporate-propelled densification. It’s gradual. It’s discrete. It’s green.”
Now that many cities have figured out backyard cottage rules, they face a new challenge: dealing with homes even tinier than the typical accessory dwelling. Some cities’ regulations set minimum size requirements for dwellings. Others say a recreational vehicle can’t count as an ADU, which means “you can camp in your little house, but not live in it,” writes Dee Williams. Tiny houser Lina Menard suggests that “people should have the right to a tiny house as long as it accommodates their needs and desires.” But for people to exercise that right, cities will have to rethink the zoning rules that stand in the way of tiny homes.
After a year in a 120-square-foot tiny home, Menard has a good idea of how to live well in a small space. “I think one of the biggest lessons I’ve learned is that I’m much happier when I live with just the things I like best. My relationship to stuff has shifted dramatically over the past year and a half. I’m much less materialistic than I used to be. But I really appreciate the little touches, too. It’s not about deprivation, but about intension,” Menard told me.
She recognizes that tiny home living isn’t for everyone, but thinks there’s a way to broaden their appeal: the “cohousing” model, where tiny homes would be coupled with shared kitchens, laundry facilities, guest rooms, and even amenities like barbeques, workshops, and gardens. “Tiny cohousing would just push the envelope,” Menard writes in her blog. “People who lived in a tiny house community would have access to all these things, but they wouldn’t have to own all these things themselves,” Menard explains.
There are a few small home cohousing communities popping up in Cascadia. Eli Spevak, owner of Orange Splot, LLC, has developed several innovative housing projects in Portland. “My goal is to keep modeling new ways of providing affordable, community-oriented houses,” Spevak told The Oregonian.
The Sabin Green cohousing community brings Spevak’s goals to fruition. Sabin Green includes four homes, built on a 75- by 100-foot lot. The lot had a single-family home and detached garage. The single-family home remains, but the detached garage was converted into a 600-square-foot cottage. A second home and a 600-square-foot accessory dwelling were built as well. The four homes face onto a central courtyard, but they also have access to shared gardens, a community room with space for visitors, and a bike storage shed. The sharing doesn’t stop with physical improvements: residents also use just one Internet service, share a newspaper subscription, and meet for weekly dinners.
The project is home to a diverse group, including a young couple, retirees, a single woman, and a small family. Residents Laura Ford and Josh Devine paid just under $150,000 for their 530 square foot home. They downsized from a 700-square-foot apartment, but see the loss of square footage as worth the cost. “If you live by yourself, you might not be able to afford the brick plaza, the teahouse, the gardens,” Devine told The Oregonian.
Ruth’s Garden Cottages—covered by Sightline here—takes tiny home communities to another level. On a 50- by 100-foot lot in Northeast Portland that housed one small dwelling, Orange Splot added two tiny cottages, each less than 200 square feet in size. The miniature structures have room for a sleeping loft, a bathroom, and a well-proportioned front porch. The cottages make use of the kitchen in the main home. A shared garden takes up the front 50 feet of the lot.
The recession and housing crisis, combined with changing demographics, have led many of us to reevaluate what we want in a home. More and more folks are looking for homes within walking distance of jobs, stores, and transit—and have proven willing to trade square footage for a vibrant neighborhood. At the same time, millennials increasingly look for alternatives to the car; baby boomers have reached the age where they don’t need a big home in the ‘burbs; and more and more families are choosing to live in multi-generational households.
Tiny houses are a great solution for all these needs. So whether you are a recent graduate wanting to be free from high rent, or a family looking to live without a mortgage, or you want toturn your detached garage into a mother-in-law suite, a small home might be for you. As Marcus Barksdale, who built his own small home in Asheville, North Carolina, said in this interview: “It would be really neat if more people sought to have smaller spaces, because it would free them up for a larger life.”
The Seattle Design Festival is underway and continues throughout the weekend with great programming. One exhibit that caught my eye is called Tight Urbanism:
This is a mobile exhibit by AIA Seattle’s 2010 Emerging Professionals Travel Scholarship recipient Daniel Toole. Daniel travelled to Chicago, San Francisco, Melbourne, Osaka and Kyoto – cities that continue to transform their alley networks – to study the potentially vibrant in-between spaces of the built environment. The exhibit will connect Daniel’s findings to the less-travelled paths of Seattle’s own abundant alleyways.
Utilizing several mediums, including photographs and sketches, the exhibit is mounted on shipping pallets and casters to keep it mobile and modular. It has been displayed around the city at the AIA gallery, and several alleys including Firehouse Alley in Pioneer Square, and Canton Alley in the International District.
Copies of Daniel’s book, Tight Urbanism, which documents his travels through alleys in writing, photography, and sketching, will be available… (Continue Reading: Tight Urbanism | Seattle Design Festival)
Please join us for lunch at GGLO today as we welcome Nancy Bird, Sandy Fischer, and Mike Kent. Nancy, Sandy, and Mike will present neighborhood streetscape reinvention projects and participate in a Q&A about lessons learned and the potential for more creative thinking about how we use our rights of way. Our Streetscape 2.0 series continues in September; we’ll take a look at two exciting “green street” projects in development.
But first, here’s a bit more on Mike and the Melrose Promenade project he’ll be presenting today:
Mike Kent has lived in Capitol Hill since 2009 and founded the Melrose Promenade project in 2010. He currently works as a Project Manager for Pastakia & Associates, and prior to that he worked for more than 10 years in the non-profit and public sector. His background is in urban planning, and he presently serves as chair for Leadership for Great Neighborhoods. Mike also served for two years as Vice President of the Capitol Hill Community Council.
The views from Capitol Hill’s Melrose Avenue are among the best in the city, but the poor quality of the street itself threatens the public enjoyment of them. Since 2010, a group of community members has been working to remedy this. The Melrose Promenade project aims to create a more pedestrian- and bicycle-friendly street by widening and extending the sidewalk and adding benches, trees and other landscaping, pedestrian-oriented lighting, and public art. The project has earned the support of numerous community and civic organizations, property owners, businesses, and residents.
Hear directly from Crosscut Contributor, Historic Preservationist and Architect Patricia Tusa Fels at our upcoming July 12 Brownbag, also featuring Liz Dunn, Dennis Meier of DPD and Great City Board Member and Architect Jeff Reibman. We’ll be taking a look at Development activity in Seattle’s Pike/Pine neighborhood and strategies to retain the dynamic and diverse culture that makes it such a hotspot to live, work, play, and build.
Nearly all talk of the environment in and around Seattle is about the mountains and the sound, rivers and hiking trails. Yet most of us spend a big portion of our time in the urban environment, which has an effect on all of us: our wellbeing, our outlook, our family life, and prospects for our work and leisure. There is a serious disconnect between our collective reverence for the outward “environment,” and our willingness to let the city’s own environment be shaped by developers.
It is especially ironic that Seattle, situated amidst glorious and gloriously complicated ecosystems, leaves the guidance and stewardship of its experiential environment to private developers and their tendencies towards monoculture. It is naïve and irresponsible that we assume their focus is on the overall vitality of the streets and neighborhoods in which their buildings sit.
Instead, the city should be looking creatively and deeply at the land use rules on the books, with an eye towards eliminating or modifying those that don’t foster the complexity of the place. Diversity by design is the key to creating a city that can be seen, experienced, worked and lived in by more of its citizens and visitors… (Continue Reading: Why Seattle needs a new urban environmentalism | Crosscut.com)
Cool! But, probably illegal; so don’t try this at home.
The small, portable, and frankly genius Sky Deck table is a mini table designed to “wrap” itself around the rails of balconies or fire escapes, giving you just enough horizontal surface space for a small plate and something refreshing to drink… via: The Sky Deck Fire Escape Table | Apartment Therapy.
Eye for an eye, really? Irresponsible developers pay heed to the Code of Hammurabi!
Since the dawn of civilization, irresponsible builders did not survive in the marketplace. They did not survive, period. Under the ancient Code of Hammurabi of Babylon circa 1800 BC any builder who negligently built a home that later collapsed and killed the home owner “shall be put death.” Recently, citing to the Code, the Supreme Court of Washington recently, sternly reminded owners, engineers and contractors of their responsibility for worker safety.
In 2004, a digester dome at Spokane’s sewage treatment plant collapsed, killing one City of Spokane employee and injuring two others. The massive digester had a capacity of 2.25 million gallons. Its purpose was to take raw solids, circulate them for several weeks at a high temperature in an anaerobic process, and turn the solids into fertilizer. The injured parties, who were standing on and adjacent to the digester when it collapsed, sued CH2M Hill Inc., the project engineer that had contracted with the City as a consultant for the 10-year capital improvement project to upgrade the plant.
The Plaintiffs alleged, in part, that CH2M had failed to properly advise them and the City, in writing, of the downstream effects of altering the direction of sewage flow at a valve-like transfer station leading to the digester. Prior to the accident, the workers noticed pressure rising in the digester and, in an attempt to relieve that pressure, began conducting a transfer to move sludge from that digester to another. However, CH2M had recently suggested a design change for that valve and related system, which had been implemented, and the effect of that change was significant. Instead of transferring sewage out of the digester, the new system simply transferred the sludge to a “deadhead”, causing no relief in pressure whatsoever. Unfortunately, the City workers did not know this and believed the transfer would relieve pressure. Ultimately, the digester’s dome collapsed, causing one of the workers who was working on top of the dome to fall into the digester and die, while the other two were blown clear by a wave of sludge and suffered serious injury.
The American Society of Landscape Architects’ blog, The Dirt, asks What’s an Eco-City? You can find out or decide for yourself and explore the evolution of this concept through a new UW symposium “Next Eco-City.”
The University of Washington’s landscape architecture department has put together a symposium that will explore the idea of the Eco-City. In ”Next Eco-City,” a range of leading landscape theorists and practitioners like Kristina Hill, Affiliate ASLA, Pierre Belanger, ASLA, and Yu Kongjian, International ASLA, will cover how the Eco-City concept has evolved with increased urbanization and rapid globalization.
The conference organizers argue that “urban environments worldwide are in the midst of multiple shifts, driven by interconnected flows in capital, people, and resources at local, regional and global scales. It impacts not only cities but also the network of social and ecological systems well beyond their borders.”
Despite the fact that a true Eco-City has never really existed, the idea continues to have legs, and has persevered as a potential solution to global challenges. “In contrast to the complexity of today’s urbanization, the concept of the ‘Eco-City,’ arguably dating back to the ideal of the 19th Century Garden City, seems like an overly simplistic and utopian vision. Yet, the imagery and language of an idealized ‘Eco-City’ continue to shape the planning and design of contemporary cities while disregarding the vital complexity of contemporary urban conditions and issues.” More…
One of the all time best urban design studies is now available online. William “Holly” Whyte’s Secret Life of Small Urban Spaces is a tour de force cinematic study of how people actually use urban spaces in New York.
Even though we won’t win a free trip to Portland for saying this, you should really be reading Sightline Daily. We like the regional round up of sustainability topics they find from all over the region, like this from the Tyee:
Road and stormwater infrastructure often destroys the ecological function of the land that supports it and burdens home buyers and taxpayers through its cost to install, maintain and replace. Since the end of the Second World War, the per dwelling unit cost for providing, maintaining and replacing infrastructure (defined here as the physical means for moving people, goods, energy and liquids through the city) has increased by nearly 400 per cent according to some estimates.
Most of this per capita increase has been the consequence of ever more demanding engineering standards for residential roads, coupled with the gradual increase in per capita land demand over the decades (or at least until the year 2000), a consequence of universally applied sprawl patterns throughout the United States and Canada.
The first costs of these ever more odious engineering standards and ever more exclusive zoning regulations were often invisible to the taxpayer, buried as they were within the costs of the original home purchase. More…
Great City volunteers and sustainable transportation advocates on Capitol Hill have been conspiring and brainstorming together for years. We’ve been thrilled to see the great traction our friends on the Capitol Hill Community Council (CHCC) are getting with their innovative “Complete Streetcar” concept. Here’s an update from the CHCC’s Mike Kent:
On Tuesday, May 4th, more than 50 transit advocates and active community members joined the Capitol Hill Community Council’s Complete Streetcar Campaign at Capitol Hill’s Sole Repair lounge in celebrating the group’s recent successes.
The day before, the Seattle City Council voted into law legislation that brought the proposed First Hill Streetcar closer to completion.
The party honored the group’s success in advocating for an alignment that would run in both directions along Broadway north of Union Street, instead of looping around Cal Anderson park.
The group’s next steps include calling for an extension of the proposed streetcar route beyond Denny Way to the northern end of Broadway near East Aloha Street, as was originally envisioned, and pushing for a streetscape plan that includes, among other things, a separated two-way cycle track.
If you are interested in becoming active with the Complete Streetcar Campaign, send an e-mail to email@example.com.
AIA Seattle’s Forum magazine is seeking illustrated ideas that repurpose or rethink underused or vacant spaces of all kinds for its upcoming issue, “Coming Out of the Curve.” They have issued a challenge to designers and artists to think boldly about innovative approaches to underutilized land, buildings or infrastructure. More info below:
Ideas to Repurpose Vacant Urban Spaces
We are living a new economic paradigm, with profound impacts on our built environment. To what creative uses can we put vacant or underutilized buildings? Can partially constructed projects contribute to, rather than diminish, our neighborhoods? Are there more constructive uses for vacant lots than just another parking lot? How might we rethink outmoded infrastructure? How does the new economy create opportunities for lean, fresh solutions to our urban problems?
Send a 72dpi jpeg with a 100 word synopsis to Isla McKetta at firstname.lastname@example.org by the deadline below. Jpegs should be at least 8.5″x9″. We cannot accept previously published images. If your idea is selected, a 300 dpi version will be requested. Selected ideas will be published in the August/September issue of Forum magazine.
Coming Out of the Curve
Ideas due May 14, 2010
Publication date August / September 2010
Mission and Audience
Forum is a platform for critical dialogue about architecture in Washington and the Pacific Northwest. It reaches over 4000 architects and related professionals in the state of Washington.
To learn more visit http://www.aiaseattle.org/forum.
“In Search of Sustainable Urbanism: Systems and Territories”
Location: Architecture Hall, Room 147,
Pre-lecture reception for Great City Members: 5:00
Lecture: 6:30 PM (More Info Here)
Date: Wednesday, February 17th
Hosted By Great City and the University of Washington Dept. of Landscape Architecture
Great City members are invited to attend a pre-lecture reception with Mark Johnson an hour and a half before the event. Snacks and Drinks will be included.
To RSVP, please email Paul Chasan at email@example.com.
To become a member, see: www.greatcity.org/contribute
Mark Johnson, FASLA, will discuss the development of both theory and projects, shedding light on the most current work and thinking about what it really takes to design cities for the next generation of urban life. His work is currently addressing significant waterfront regeneration in San Diego, Los Angeles, Miami, St. Louis and New York; projects that reveal his thinking on the systems that make cities healthy and the territories that we design for living.
Mark Johnson, FASLA, is a leading urbanist, designer of public space and strategist for the re-generation of core cities. He is currently leading the re-generation of the Northside of downtown St. Louis, the design of the North Embarcadero in San Diego, the design of Museum Park on the Miami waterfront and a revitalization plan for the waterfront on the Harlem River in Manhattan. As a founding principal of Civitas Inc., Mr. Johnson has led many complex projects that have had a transformative impact on cities: three riverfront parks in Denver; 20 years leading the redevelopment of Stapleton International Airport; a master plan for Balboa Park in San Diego; a waterfront plan for Memphis; and a corridor plan to connect historic neighborhoods along Brooklyn’s Atlantic Avenue. He recently completed the Los Angeles River Revitalization Master Plan, a project that immediately gained national recognition for its economic, social and environmental impact. With Civitas he has focused on the design of healthier, more livable and more sustainable cities for 25 years. His projects have been at the leading edge of both the theory and practice of urban regeneration and landscape urbanism, with major transformative interventions achieved across the country.
Great City is Pleased to co-sponsor the Green Alleys Competition!
Seattle’s alleys offer intimate, small-scale spaces that, properly staged, invite people to walk and promise a host of sustainability benefits. Introducing greenery to Seattle’s forgotten spaces can create a small ecological system of its own by filtering city runoff before it hits the Puget Sound.
How green is your alley? The City of Seattle, the International Sustainability Institute, People for Puget Sound, and the AIA Seattle is sponsoring a contest on how to green our alleys. An all-star cast of designers, planners, residents and other alley-lovers will judge the entries for their originality, cost-effectiveness and practical implementation.
Join us in a unique design competition to green Seattle’s alleys
For more information send an email to:
OR email firstname.lastname@example.org
Here is a PDF document containing project info, submission requirements and maps of the project area: Green_Alleys_info.pdf (836 KB)
Interested parties can get more information by subscribing to (emailing): email@example.com
Official Press Release Follows:
Alleys are a key resource in Seattle. Traditionally restricted to service uses, the Clear Alleys Program has opened up opportunities to use alleys in different ways. This design competition is focused on potential new uses that in combination could add functionality to our transportation and ecological systems as well as improving the aesthetic and community-building elements of our City. Below are some guiding principles to help you in your design of Seattle’s best Green Alley:
Green alleys should:
- Welcome pedestrians, both as walkways and places to visit
- Incorporate green stormwater infrastructure in both functional and aesthetic aspects
- Encourage building design to provide doors, windows, and other elements that support non-service uses
- Continue to provide access for service vehicles
- Design innovation and quality: 40%
- Thoughtful integration of green stormwater infrastructure: 20%
- Response to culture, community, and context: 20%
- Transferability of ideas and approach to other alleys: 20%
Registration fee $10, payable at the time of submission to International Sustainability Institute, (ISI) (cash or check only)
Up to two (2) 30″x40″ presentation boards (orientation may be landscape or portrait), include a CD with electronic versions of all boards in PDF or JPG format
Address specifically the Nord alley within the project area (see project area information packet)
Design on one side only of presentation boards, backsides should list submitters’ name(s), contact information and submission category
Graphics may be any combination of sections, plans, and sketches that helps to convey your design
Limit one submission per individual or team
Submit under one category only:
Student or New Professional: include current quarter enrollment information or proof of graduation from a degree or certificate program within the last three years.
Non-affiliated designer: include a personal statement that you are not currently employed with a firm or agency where your primary role is design work.
General: includes individuals, firms, or groups that are currently employed in a design field.
Assumptions and notes:
For this exercise assume that soils beneath the alley right-of-way are sufficient for stormwater infiltration (1″/hour permeability)
The use of the Nord Alley does not preclude designs that may not comport with the Pioneer Square historic guidelines, the judging criteria includes the ability of a design to be transferable to other alleys within the City
Designs may be proposed for within the right of way of the alley as well as retrofitting the existing buildings as those designs support the Guiding Principles for creating a Green Alley
All electronic submissions become the property of the City of Seattle
All submission materials will be available for pick up at ISI offices on March 5 during regular business hours
Grand Prize: Open to general submissions
Best Student/New Professional:
Best non-affiliated designer:
People’s Choice: Winner selected at the alley party – see schedule
We are awaiting confirmation of a cash award for each prize along with a super-cool trophy!
All submissions will be published on the SDOT blog.
Week of January 11: Release schedule, regulations, and base information on Yahoo Groups
February 22: Entries due to ISI offices by 5 pm PST (314 1st Avenue South, 206-381-1630)
February 24: Judging panel reviews and selects winners
March 4: First Thursday Alley party, all entries displayed and winners announced in the Nord Alley
Great City, AIA Seattle, Pioneer Square Community Association, People for Puget Sound, City of Seattle, Great City, Downtown Seattle Association, Feet First, and the International Sustainability Institute.
aLIVe – Call for Ideas
Deadline: Monday, January 25, 2010 by 5:00pm
Eligibility: Professional artists and artist teams, architects, landscape architects, designers of all types, engineers, tinkerers and community members residing In Washington, Oregon, California and British Columbia are invited to apply.
4Culture in collaboration with Great City is seeking ideas that will inspire and engage the broader community in a conversation about transportation. Currently, our transportation system is designed around 40 ton trucks, but what if we were to design around the human body instead? A bicycle is a low-impact vehicle. What else can be imagined? Selected project ideas will be funded and exhibited in a variety of ways, depending upon medium and context. This is a great opportunity for people working across disciplines to explore how the arts can enhance existing systems and stimulate public conversations about energy, livability and design. Citizens from all backgrounds are encouraged to submit ideas for everything from poetry to prototypes.
Guidelines and Application (small PDF)
To learn more about aLIVe, check out this see:
Editior’s Note: This post was written by Great City super volunteer Jeff Reibman and David Neiman of the Congress of Residential Architects (CORA) who participated in the CORA team described below.
The Seattle City Council’s Planning Land Use and Neighborhoods Committee (PLUNC) is considering an update to the Multifamily Zoning Code. To aid in their process they asked three groups to test run the new Low-rise sections of the proposed code to see what sort of outcomes we might produce on several different sites. Teams were asked to produce both “White Hat” schemes that showed to positive potential of the proposed code and “Black Hat” schemes that attempted to game the code to maximize development potential while producing results counter to it’s intent. The goal of the exercise was to help council members visualize the real world impact of the proposed changes and to see how it could be modified to better accomplish the city’s goals.
The three teams were picked to represent a spectrum of relevant ideas Team 1 was The Master Builders Association. Team 2 was The Congress of Residential Architects (CORA) with some involvement from Great City. Team 3 represented longtime neighborhood advocates.
CORA’s team was represented by a number of seasoned multi-family architects who drew on their experience to test a wide range of ideas. Our black hat schemes were intended to illustrate extreme of significant loopholes and unintended consequences while our white hat schemes highlighted the type of development we hope to see more of and advocated for changes that would incentivize it.
On 9/24/09 all three teams presented to PLUNC in council chambers. CORA displayed and explained the 20 boards posted here to council members and the public. Here is a link to the Executive Summary (Small PDF) and here is a link to the Full Report (Big PDF – 13 MB). Of eleven recommendations that would close the major loopholes exploited by the bad schemes & provide additional flexibility where it would allow the good schemes to be improved. Our major recommendations include:
- Reduce allowable FAR for ground-based housing. Above 1.1 FAR, the wheels start to come off the cart for most ground based housing schemes. At 1.4 FAR most ground based housing schemes are a disaster. We need to revisit allowable FAR & use it as a tool to reward desirable features & outcomes. For small-lot ground-based housing, FAR needs to be kept relatively low. For structured parking solutions, large lots, and projects that undergo full design review, higher FAR is appropriate.
- The residential amenities requirement is far too permissive – it reduces open space to an afterthought. It’s not hard to correct. The requirements just need to be dialed up to be more significant. See executive summary for proposal.
- Lift the density limits in all L-zones to allow diverse unit types, sizes, affordability levels.
- Return to a 30′ base height limit for all L-zones w/ a 4′ height bonus in L3 for structured parking.
- Encourage basements by exempting them from FAR – you get a privacy grade break & create opportunities for inexpensive rental flats.
- Reduce required Green factor. If it were working, it would incentivize open space, privacy screening, tree planting & permeability. It does none of those things; it simply covers your land in shrubs & your walls in vines.